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Archive for January, 2012

EQUITY AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION – ENROLMENT AT DISAGGREGATE LEVEL

8.1 Enrolment at disaggregate level
After having assessed the progress at aggregate level in the last chapter, attempt
has been made to look at the progress with respect to certain special groups and
also at the inter-group disparities of multiple natures. The present chapter
devotes on a study of the disparities between (a)rural and urban (b) States (c)
Inter-caste (d) Inter-religion (e) Male-female (f) different occupation groups; and
(g) Poor and non–poor. NSS data for 2000, which provide detailed information
at disaggregate level, has been used..
8.2 Rural and Urban
There are significant disparities in enrolment ratio between rural and urban area.
In 2000 the GER for rural and urban area was 5.58% and 21.74% respectively-
GER in urban area being four times higher compared with rural area (Table
4.10).
The population census came up with the GER of 8.99% for rural area and
24.52% for urban area in 2001 – the GER in rural area being all most three time
lower compared with urban area.
The EER worked out to 51.1% for rural and 66% for urban area-later being
higher by about 15% points. This means only half of the rural boys and girls who
complete higher secondary go to higher education which is less by 15% points
compared with urban area.
8.3 Inter-State Variation
There are considerable inter-state variations in the level of higher education.
While the GER at aggregate level is about 10.08%, it is more than national
average in State/UTs like Chandigarh (26.24%), Delhi (21.16%), Kerala
(18.08%), Goa (17.54%), Pondicherry.(15.37%), Himachal Pradesh (15.22%)
and Maharashtra (14.14%) (Table 4.1(b).
By national comparison, the GER is lower than the national average in
States/UTs like Lakshadweep (0.34%), D&N Haveli (2.23%), Arunachal Pradesh
(2.42%), Sikkim (5.01%), Tripura (5.97%), Bihar (6.16%), West Bengal (6.30%),
Meghalaya (07.13%), Mizoram (7.87), Karnataka (7.96%).
8.4 Gender Disparities. The access to higher education is also low for girls as compared with boys. The
GER being 12.12% for male and 8% for female.

Higher Education – STATUS OF QUALITY AND EXCELLENCE

Quality in Higher education has assumed great significance in recent times,
particularly in the context of massification and increase in competition due to role
of the market forces in higher education. Increasing cross-border education
opportunities, technological development resulting in new modes of educational
provisions and emergence of ‘Knowledge society’ are other challenging
demands. In view of the rapid advancement of knowledge and rapid growth of
complexity of technological endeavor, the future will need greater competencies
and as a consequence, higher education must provide improved and speedy
methods to meet today’s needs and face tomorrow’s challenges. While the
expansion of the system of higher education has been impressive, the problem of
access with equity, quality, and that of resource continue to burden the system
as a whole, without finding suitable strategies to address them adequately. The
principal postulate is that the quality assurance in higher education during the
XIth plan period will be enabled primarily when human capital is creatively and
imaginatively harnessed, developed and released compared to the ‘linear’
development strategies. Therefore it would be necessary to approach the matter
in two dimensions.
The Parliamentary Standing Committee on HRD in its 172nd Report has
recommended that India despite severe limitations has created a large
scientific/technical manpower, which has earned a pride of place in the
world community. India has not only to sustain its position but also to be a
front-runner in the global competition. This can be done, according to the
Committee, only when the standard and quality of our educational
institutions and its graduates are greatly improved. They will have to be
instilled with a high level of creativity, innovation, dedication, patriotism,
etc. Greater and regular sharing of experiences through networking and
otherwise between different institutions at the national and global plane is
highly recommended. Multi-disciplinary curriculum with stress on
developing problem-solving abilities, augmenting knowledge skill and
group activities are essential to provide relevance and usefulness to real
life situations. Quality of higher education can be greatly enhanced
through the use of audio-visual techniques and the modern information &
communication technologies.

Higher Education – Autonomous Colleges

India consists of a large network of more than 17,000 colleges. Out of
them, there are 204 autonomous colleges spread over in 44 universities of
10 States and 1 Union Territory. These colleges form the bedrock of
higher education. They are also the unit of higher education to promote
access, equity, quality, relevance and research. The recommended
measures are:-
– Teachers of autonomous colleges should be treated on par with
those in the Universities.
– Special recognition should be accorded to meritorious autonomous
colleges.
– Autonomous college be granted degree awarding status.
– Cluster colleges should be created. Clear and well-defined
guidelines should be formulated for these to function.
– The academic council of autonomous colleges must be empowered
to start the undergraduate or postgraduate courses just like the
‘deemed to be universities’.
– Networking of autonomous colleges be done in such way that the
students benefit by credit transfer from one autonomous college to
another autonomous college, for the purpose of conferment of the
degree , so as to enable students’ mobility.
– University Grants Commission should support creation of
specialized schools in the campus.
– A permanent status of autonomy and degree awarding status is
conferred to colleges, which have gone through the experience 15-
20 years of autonomy.
– Special grant for CPE and Autonomous colleges to initiate the
Deemed University status with the aid of and in consultation with
the State Governments.
– Additional grant as second phase of CPE for existing CPE

Higher Education – Use Of Technologies

 

The Parliamentary Standing Committee on HRD in its 172nd Report
has recommended that we must exploit our ICT potential for its
penetration to the Country remotest corner to expand the access to
higher education.
• ICT has tremendous potential to extend and augment quality in higher
education. Its full potential has not been tapped.
• Under the Eleventh Plan, Central Universities can lead this process by
providing campus based wireless Internet facilities, 24X7 computer labs.
• In collaboration with corporate houses, a laptop initiative can be put in
place for post-graduate and research scholars. This will greatly enhance
equitable access to knowledge base
• Satellite uploading equipment for each Central University should be
established.
• The State universities have fallen behind in modernizing their
administrative machinery and introducing e-governance.
• Funds should be provided to State universities for ICT faculty.

Curriculum Development

There is a need for starting of interdisciplinary and integrated courses at under graduate and post- graduate levels with flexibility in choice of Courses and a system of credits that enable horizontal and vertical mobility/transfers for teachers. These courses need to be started in both science and social science streams and must be offered by the Departments of the Central Universities. Colleges should also be involved in curriculum development. • The curricula should be revamped to reflect the need for national development with international benchmark. • Creativity of teachers, research fellows, students and external experts should be harnessed in order to develop multimedia teaching material.There is a need for starting of interdisciplinary and integrated courses at under graduate and post- graduate levels with flexibility in choice of Courses and a system of credits that enable horizontal and vertical mobility/transfers for teachers. These courses need to be started in both science and social science streams and must be offered by the Departments of the Central Universities. Colleges should also be involved in curriculum development. • The curricula should be revamped to reflect the need for national development with international benchmark. • Creativity of teachers, research fellows, students and external experts should be harnessed in order to develop multimedia teaching material.

PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON HIGHER EDUCATION: AN OVERVIEW

Process and Nature of Planning for Higher Education
• The plan size is determined by the Planning Commission in consultation
with the Ministry of Human Resource Development, UGC and other
experts through the constitution of an expert group on higher education.
The development grant is essentially in the nature of ad hoc grant
provided once in five years by UGC to the Central Universities on the
basis of negotiations. In allocating the plan grants to the universities, UGC
has scheme-based approach to fund higher education. Plans prepared by
the universities are scrutinized by the UGC and allocations to the
universities are made under the different schemes.
In the light of above observations, it would be profitable to explore the
possibilities of alternative method of planning, considering one or more of
the following issues and aspects: –
– Scheme based approach of the plan support to universities and
colleges should be restricted to the few major schemes only.
– Universities and colleges should be allocated a block grant. The
block grant can be disbursed against a 5 year perspective plan
prepared by the universities and colleges under the guidelines
issued by the UGC.
– Perspective plan of the universities and colleges should clearly
mention the vision, mission and objectives of the institution. The
detailed plan should review the status of teaching and research and
contribution of the institution in terms of access, equity and quality.
– Guidelines of the UGC may provide for the norms and the financial
support for the separate programme.
– UGC should develop an effective online monitoring mechanism
along with the review missions for supervision of implementation of
the programmes.

Growth Pattern of Public Funding for Higher Education

The trend of the public expenditure on higher education indicates that
during 1993-94 and 2004-05, the public expenditure in elementary
education has gone up by four times. However, the public expenditure on
secondary and higher education has increased roughly by three times.
The size of the total public expenditure in India in 2004-05 (B) is Rs.
80286 crores (Rs. 802.8 billion). The Sectoral allocation of public
expenditure on education for all these years on elementary, secondary,
higher (general) and technical education remained

Summary on last ten five year plans

 

 

 

GENERAL : To achieve a profound transformation of higher education in order
that it becomes an effective promoter of sustainable human development and at
the same time, improves its relevance with closer links with the world of work and
achieve quality in its teaching, research, business and community extension
functions including life long learning.
SPECIFIC: To contribute to the transformation through improvement of the
conceptions, methodology and practices related to:
�� The relevance of higher education.
�� Quality, evaluation and accreditation.
�� Research and development.
�� Outreach activities in business and community and life long
learning.
�� The knowledge and use of the new information and communication
technology.
�� Management and financing.
�� Export of higher education, and reorientation of international
cooperation.
�� Strengthening of open and distance education system.
�� Strengthening of research institutions.
�� Mobilization of resources.