8.1 Enrolment at disaggregate level
After having assessed the progress at aggregate level in the last chapter, attempt
has been made to look at the progress with respect to certain special groups and
also at the inter-group disparities of multiple natures. The present chapter
devotes on a study of the disparities between (a)rural and urban (b) States (c)
Inter-caste (d) Inter-religion (e) Male-female (f) different occupation groups; and
(g) Poor and non–poor. NSS data for 2000, which provide detailed information
at disaggregate level, has been used..
8.2 Rural and Urban
There are significant disparities in enrolment ratio between rural and urban area.
In 2000 the GER for rural and urban area was 5.58% and 21.74% respectively-
GER in urban area being four times higher compared with rural area (Table
The population census came up with the GER of 8.99% for rural area and
24.52% for urban area in 2001 – the GER in rural area being all most three time
lower compared with urban area.
The EER worked out to 51.1% for rural and 66% for urban area-later being
higher by about 15% points. This means only half of the rural boys and girls who
complete higher secondary go to higher education which is less by 15% points
compared with urban area.
8.3 Inter-State Variation
There are considerable inter-state variations in the level of higher education.
While the GER at aggregate level is about 10.08%, it is more than national
average in State/UTs like Chandigarh (26.24%), Delhi (21.16%), Kerala
(18.08%), Goa (17.54%), Pondicherry.(15.37%), Himachal Pradesh (15.22%)
and Maharashtra (14.14%) (Table 4.1(b).
By national comparison, the GER is lower than the national average in
States/UTs like Lakshadweep (0.34%), D&N Haveli (2.23%), Arunachal Pradesh
(2.42%), Sikkim (5.01%), Tripura (5.97%), Bihar (6.16%), West Bengal (6.30%),
Meghalaya (07.13%), Mizoram (7.87), Karnataka (7.96%).
8.4 Gender Disparities. The access to higher education is also low for girls as compared with boys. The
GER being 12.12% for male and 8% for female.
Archive for January, 2012
Quality in Higher education has assumed great significance in recent times,
particularly in the context of massification and increase in competition due to role
of the market forces in higher education. Increasing cross-border education
opportunities, technological development resulting in new modes of educational
provisions and emergence of ‘Knowledge society’ are other challenging
demands. In view of the rapid advancement of knowledge and rapid growth of
complexity of technological endeavor, the future will need greater competencies
and as a consequence, higher education must provide improved and speedy
methods to meet today’s needs and face tomorrow’s challenges. While the
expansion of the system of higher education has been impressive, the problem of
access with equity, quality, and that of resource continue to burden the system
as a whole, without finding suitable strategies to address them adequately. The
principal postulate is that the quality assurance in higher education during the
XIth plan period will be enabled primarily when human capital is creatively and
imaginatively harnessed, developed and released compared to the ‘linear’
development strategies. Therefore it would be necessary to approach the matter
in two dimensions.
The Parliamentary Standing Committee on HRD in its 172nd Report has
recommended that India despite severe limitations has created a large
scientific/technical manpower, which has earned a pride of place in the
world community. India has not only to sustain its position but also to be a
front-runner in the global competition. This can be done, according to the
Committee, only when the standard and quality of our educational
institutions and its graduates are greatly improved. They will have to be
instilled with a high level of creativity, innovation, dedication, patriotism,
etc. Greater and regular sharing of experiences through networking and
otherwise between different institutions at the national and global plane is
highly recommended. Multi-disciplinary curriculum with stress on
developing problem-solving abilities, augmenting knowledge skill and
group activities are essential to provide relevance and usefulness to real
life situations. Quality of higher education can be greatly enhanced
through the use of audio-visual techniques and the modern information &