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Education Act in India Contd..



Involvement of Private Schools

No school without recognition
 Conform to the minimum standards prescribed
All unaided schools to provide free education to at least
25% children from the weaker sections in the
 Costs to be reimbursed – @ per child expenditure
incurred by the State

Protection of the Right

Independent Monitoring of the implementation of the Act is
assigned to the National council of Protection of Child
Rights (NCPCR) the main responsibility of
 Examine and review safeguards for rights under this Act,
recommend measures for effective implementation
 Inquire into complaints relating to child’s right to free and
compulsory education
 Conduct Periodic social Audit of the status of

RTE Implementation Road Map

RTE Implementation Road Map
Establishment of neighbourhood schools      :   3 years

Provision of school infrastructure                  :   3 years
–All weather school buildings
–Head Teacher cum Office room, library
–Toilets, drinking water, kitchen sheds
–Barrier free access
–Playground, fencing, boundary walls

Provision of teachers as per prescribed PTR   :   3 years

Training of untrained teachers                          :   5 years

Quality interventions and other provisions      :   With immediate

Education Act in India

Right of Children:

To free and compulsory admission, attendance and
completion of EE in a neighbourhood school
 Free: removal by the state of any financial barrier that
prevents a child from completing eight years of
 Compulsion: on the state; parental duty to send
children to school
Not enrolled/dropout children be admitted to age
appropriate class after a period of Special Training
No child shall be failed or expelled from school upto class 8
(– corresponds to the age group 6-14)


Norms and standards specified – applicable to all schools
 Minimum Infrastructure
 Teacher-Pupil Ratio of 1:30
 School days (200 to 220 days) and total instructional
hours (800 to 1000 hours)
 Working days for teachers – weekly hours of work
To be applied in every school


Qualification for appointment of
teachers laid down at national level
Academic responsibility of the teachers
No private tuition by fulltime school

Bringing Community and Schools closer:

Community participation ensured through School
Management Committee comprising parents, teachers and
elected representatives
 ¾ members from among parents of children in the school
 Proportionate representation to weaker and deprived
Allocates major responsibility to the Local Authority –
Panchayati Raj system
 To proactively monitor the delivery of rights and
entitlements of children

To free and compulsory admission, attendance and
completion of EE in a neighbourhood school
 Free: removal by the state of any financial barrier that
prevents a child from completing eight years of
 Compulsion: on the state; parental duty to send
children to school
Not enrolled/dropout children be admitted to age
appropriate class after a period of Special Training
No child shall be failed or expelled from school upto class 8
(– corresponds to the age group 6-14)


8.1 Enrolment at disaggregate level
After having assessed the progress at aggregate level in the last chapter, attempt
has been made to look at the progress with respect to certain special groups and
also at the inter-group disparities of multiple natures. The present chapter
devotes on a study of the disparities between (a)rural and urban (b) States (c)
Inter-caste (d) Inter-religion (e) Male-female (f) different occupation groups; and
(g) Poor and non–poor. NSS data for 2000, which provide detailed information
at disaggregate level, has been used..
8.2 Rural and Urban
There are significant disparities in enrolment ratio between rural and urban area.
In 2000 the GER for rural and urban area was 5.58% and 21.74% respectively-
GER in urban area being four times higher compared with rural area (Table
The population census came up with the GER of 8.99% for rural area and
24.52% for urban area in 2001 – the GER in rural area being all most three time
lower compared with urban area.
The EER worked out to 51.1% for rural and 66% for urban area-later being
higher by about 15% points. This means only half of the rural boys and girls who
complete higher secondary go to higher education which is less by 15% points
compared with urban area.
8.3 Inter-State Variation
There are considerable inter-state variations in the level of higher education.
While the GER at aggregate level is about 10.08%, it is more than national
average in State/UTs like Chandigarh (26.24%), Delhi (21.16%), Kerala
(18.08%), Goa (17.54%), Pondicherry.(15.37%), Himachal Pradesh (15.22%)
and Maharashtra (14.14%) (Table 4.1(b).
By national comparison, the GER is lower than the national average in
States/UTs like Lakshadweep (0.34%), D&N Haveli (2.23%), Arunachal Pradesh
(2.42%), Sikkim (5.01%), Tripura (5.97%), Bihar (6.16%), West Bengal (6.30%),
Meghalaya (07.13%), Mizoram (7.87), Karnataka (7.96%).
8.4 Gender Disparities. The access to higher education is also low for girls as compared with boys. The
GER being 12.12% for male and 8% for female.

Higher Education – Autonomous Colleges

India consists of a large network of more than 17,000 colleges. Out of
them, there are 204 autonomous colleges spread over in 44 universities of
10 States and 1 Union Territory. These colleges form the bedrock of
higher education. They are also the unit of higher education to promote
access, equity, quality, relevance and research. The recommended
measures are:-
– Teachers of autonomous colleges should be treated on par with
those in the Universities.
– Special recognition should be accorded to meritorious autonomous
– Autonomous college be granted degree awarding status.
– Cluster colleges should be created. Clear and well-defined
guidelines should be formulated for these to function.
– The academic council of autonomous colleges must be empowered
to start the undergraduate or postgraduate courses just like the
‘deemed to be universities’.
– Networking of autonomous colleges be done in such way that the
students benefit by credit transfer from one autonomous college to
another autonomous college, for the purpose of conferment of the
degree , so as to enable students’ mobility.
– University Grants Commission should support creation of
specialized schools in the campus.
– A permanent status of autonomy and degree awarding status is
conferred to colleges, which have gone through the experience 15-
20 years of autonomy.
– Special grant for CPE and Autonomous colleges to initiate the
Deemed University status with the aid of and in consultation with
the State Governments.
– Additional grant as second phase of CPE for existing CPE

Higher Education – Use Of Technologies


The Parliamentary Standing Committee on HRD in its 172nd Report
has recommended that we must exploit our ICT potential for its
penetration to the Country remotest corner to expand the access to
higher education.
• ICT has tremendous potential to extend and augment quality in higher
education. Its full potential has not been tapped.
• Under the Eleventh Plan, Central Universities can lead this process by
providing campus based wireless Internet facilities, 24X7 computer labs.
• In collaboration with corporate houses, a laptop initiative can be put in
place for post-graduate and research scholars. This will greatly enhance
equitable access to knowledge base
• Satellite uploading equipment for each Central University should be
• The State universities have fallen behind in modernizing their
administrative machinery and introducing e-governance.
• Funds should be provided to State universities for ICT faculty.


Process and Nature of Planning for Higher Education
• The plan size is determined by the Planning Commission in consultation
with the Ministry of Human Resource Development, UGC and other
experts through the constitution of an expert group on higher education.
The development grant is essentially in the nature of ad hoc grant
provided once in five years by UGC to the Central Universities on the
basis of negotiations. In allocating the plan grants to the universities, UGC
has scheme-based approach to fund higher education. Plans prepared by
the universities are scrutinized by the UGC and allocations to the
universities are made under the different schemes.
In the light of above observations, it would be profitable to explore the
possibilities of alternative method of planning, considering one or more of
the following issues and aspects: –
– Scheme based approach of the plan support to universities and
colleges should be restricted to the few major schemes only.
– Universities and colleges should be allocated a block grant. The
block grant can be disbursed against a 5 year perspective plan
prepared by the universities and colleges under the guidelines
issued by the UGC.
– Perspective plan of the universities and colleges should clearly
mention the vision, mission and objectives of the institution. The
detailed plan should review the status of teaching and research and
contribution of the institution in terms of access, equity and quality.
– Guidelines of the UGC may provide for the norms and the financial
support for the separate programme.
– UGC should develop an effective online monitoring mechanism
along with the review missions for supervision of implementation of
the programmes.

Growth Pattern of Public Funding for Higher Education

The trend of the public expenditure on higher education indicates that
during 1993-94 and 2004-05, the public expenditure in elementary
education has gone up by four times. However, the public expenditure on
secondary and higher education has increased roughly by three times.
The size of the total public expenditure in India in 2004-05 (B) is Rs.
80286 crores (Rs. 802.8 billion). The Sectoral allocation of public
expenditure on education for all these years on elementary, secondary,
higher (general) and technical education remained

Summary on last ten five year plans




GENERAL : To achieve a profound transformation of higher education in order
that it becomes an effective promoter of sustainable human development and at
the same time, improves its relevance with closer links with the world of work and
achieve quality in its teaching, research, business and community extension
functions including life long learning.
SPECIFIC: To contribute to the transformation through improvement of the
conceptions, methodology and practices related to:
�� The relevance of higher education.
�� Quality, evaluation and accreditation.
�� Research and development.
�� Outreach activities in business and community and life long
�� The knowledge and use of the new information and communication
�� Management and financing.
�� Export of higher education, and reorientation of international
�� Strengthening of open and distance education system.
�� Strengthening of research institutions.
�� Mobilization of resources.